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What is an Embedded System?

An Embedded system is a combination of computer software and hardware which is either fixed in capability or programmable.An embedded system can be either an independent system, or it can be a part of a large system. It is mostly designed for a specific function or functions within a larger system. For example, a fire alarm is a common example of an embedded system which can sense only smoke.

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History of Embedded system

Here, are important milestones from the history of Embedded system

In 1960, Embedded system was first used for developing Apollo Guidance System by Charles Stark Draper at MIT.
In 1965, Autonetics, developed the D-17B, the computer used in the Minuteman missile guidance system.
In 1968, the first Embedded system for a vehicle was released.
Texas Instruments developed the first microcontroller in 1971.
In 1987, the first Embedded OS, VxWorks, was released by Wind River.
Microsoft's Windows Embedded CE in 1996. By the late 1990s, the first Embedded Linux system appeared.
The Embedded market reach $140 billion in 2013.
Analysts are projecting an Embedded market larger than $40 billion by 2030.


Career Opportunities In Embedded Systems

No doubt starting packages are not much high but once you gain experience of 3-4 years, you will get handsome packages.
And experienced embedded system developers has very high demand in India.


Why Linux??

Microprocessor industry advances, forms the foundation for using Linux as an embedded OS.
Developers always wants the latest and greatest hardware and software for their new embedded designs while also requiring high reliability.
Desktop OS provides the latest in software but lack of reliability and require more memory and CPU resources.
Real-time OS (RTOS) vendors offer reliability but struggle with software development in the ever-changing world technology
Open source: entire kernel source available free.
Portable from mainframe to hand-helds Devices.


Linux Kernel Versioning??

Find it by Using Command uname -r or uname -a.
For Example-:Using w.x.y-zz and looking at the fourth file listed /boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-45 we can say:
w = Kernel Version = 4
x= Major Revision = 4
y = Minor Revision = 0
zz=Patch number = 45


Definition of Kernel

A monolithic kernel:- all services (file system, VFS, device drivers, etc) as well as core functionality (scheduling, memory allocation, etc.) are a tight knit group sharing the same space. This directly opposes a microkernel.
Suitable for Desktop (UNIX, MS-Windows).
Less run time overhead.
Less extensibility.


monolithic kernel:-Some of the essential services like address space management, Timer and IPCs reside in the kernel space.
Suitable for Embedded (RTOS).
Run time overhead.
Highly extensible.


What are Device Drivers..??

A specific piece of hardware could be controlled by a piece of software (a device driver), or could be controlled by another hardware device, which in turn could be managed by a software device driver. In the latter case, such a controlling device is commonly called a device controller.
In short, a device driver has two parts: i) Device-specific
and ii) OS-specific.


The device-specific portion of a device driver remains same across all operating systems, and is more of understanding and decoding of the device data sheets, than of software programming.


In Linux, a device driver provides a system call interface to the user. And, this is the boundary line between the so-called kernel space and user space of Linux. Based on the OS-specific interface of a driver, in Linux a driver is broadly classified into 3 verticals:
1.Packet-oriented or Network vertical.
2.Block-oriented or Storage vertical.
3.Byte-oriented or Character vertical.


Linux Kernel Makefile??

1.Overview and Definition
The Makefiles have five parts:
Makefile ----------------the top Makefile.
.config -----------------the kernel configuration file.
arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile ---the arch Makefile.
scripts/Makefile.* ----common rules etc. for all kbuild Makefiles.
kbuild Makefiles -----there are about 500 of these.


The top Makefile reads the .config file, which comes from the kernel configuration process.
The top Makefile is responsible for building two major products: vmlinux(the resident kernel image) and modules (any module files).
It builds these goals by recursively descending into the subdirectories of the kernel source tree.
The list of subdirectories which are visited depends upon the kernel configuration.
The top Makefile textually includes an arch Makefile with the name arch/$(ARCH)/Makefile. The arch Makefile supplies architecture-specific information to the top Makefile.
Each subdirectory has a kbuild Makefile which carries out the commands passed down from above.
The kbuild Makefile uses information from the .config file to construct various file lists used by kbuild to build any built-in or modular targets.
scripts/Makefile.* contains all the definitions/rules etc. that are used to build the kernel based on the kbuild makefiles.


2. The kbuild files
The most simple kbuild makefile contains one line:
obj-y += foo.o
This tells kbuild that there is one object in that directory, named foo.o. foo.o will be built from foo.c or foo.S.
If foo.o shall be built as a module, the variable obj-m is used.
Therefore the following pattern is often used:
obj-$(CONFIG_FOO) += foo.o
$(CONFIG_FOO) evaluates to either y (for built-in) or m (for module).If CONFIG_FOO is neither y nor m, then the file will not be compiled nor linked.